Fast Boot Linux with u-Boot Falcon Mode

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Fast Boot Linux with u-Boot Falcon Mode

Falcon mode is a feature in u-Boot that enables fast booting by allowing SPL directly to start Linux kernel and skip completely u-boot loading and initialization.

To understand how Falcon mode works let’s first have a quick look at a typical Linux boot-up sequence on an ARM processor:

Standard Linux Boot Process

1. First stage – Boot ROM

This is the primary program loader residing on a read-only flash memory (ROM) integrated directly into the processor chip.
It contains the very first code which is executed on power-on or reset.
Depending on the configuration of the bootstrap pins or internal fuses it may decide from which media to load and run the next piece of software. In case of a Secure Boot processor it will also verify the code authenticity before its execution.
At this stage, Boot ROM code is not aware about memory type and different interconnected peripherals.
The main goal here is to perform basic peripherals initialization such as PLLs, system clocks setup then find a boot device from which load a bootloader such as u-Boot.

2. Second stage – SPL

A typical u-Boot image is around few hundreds KB size (~300KB) which does not fit inside internal SRAM of most ARM processor. They are typically less than 100KB.
To handle this limitation, u-Boot adopted the SPL (Secondary Program Loader) approach which consists of creating a very small pre-loader that after configuring and initializing peripherals and the main system memory can load the full blown u-Boot.
It shares the same u-Boot’s sources but with a minimal set of code.
So when u-Boot is built for a platform that requires SPL, it generate two binaries : SPL (MLO file) and u-Boot image.

3. Third stage – u-Boot

Das u-Boot aims to offer a flexibel way to load and start the Linux Kernel from a different type of devices, it also provides rich features for a bootloader, such as a command line interface, Shell Scripting, Support of a variety of Filesystems, networking and other options that are very helpful during initial Hardware Bring-Up and development process, but can be bypassed for the production by enabling the Falcon-Mode and save by the way some precious seconds of the boot time !

Falcon Mode

Configure and enable Falcon-Mode

We will use a Beaglebone Black  as hardware example to showcase the setup, booting either from an eMMC or SD Card. Nevertheless the procedure should be almost identical to other ARM based boards supporting the SPL framework.

If Boot Rom Code support it, we recommend to store and boot the SPL from raw partition and by this mean also u-Boot and Linux Kernel to skip the overhead of using a Filesystem. As result the boot is even  faster !

Partition # Name Description Offset range (Bytes) Offset range (Blocks*) Size
1 MBR Master Boot Record 0x000000 – 0x010000 0x0000 – 0x007F 64KB
2 FDT Device Tree + ARGS 0x010000 – 0x040000 0x0080 – 0x01FF 192KB
4 SPL*   SPL 0x040000 – 0x060000 0x0200 – 0x02FF 128KB
5 U-Boot Full Bootloader 0x060000 – 0x0e0000 0x0300 – 0x06FF 512KB
6 U-Boot Env U-Boot environment 0x0e0000 – 0x120000 0x0700 – 0x08FF 256KB
7 Kernel Linux Kernel 0x120000 -0x1000000 0x0900 – 0x28FF 14MB

 

SPL* offset is the address from which the Boot ROM can fetch bootloader. This address is hard coded in the Boot ROM and specific to processor.

In case of AM335x there are 4 possibilities at 0x0, 0x20000,0x40000, 0x60000 [chapter 26.1.7.5.5 in the technical refrence manual ].

[1 x Block is 512 Bytes]

We are going to use u-boot  v2017.05-rc3:

U-boot offset location is defined in the sources by the following config :

Kernel offset location is defined in the sources by the following config :

Environment offset location and size are defined by the following configs:

Configs above are default in u-Boot apart from environment config which can be set in the board config file as follow:

Make sure that Falcon Mode config is enabled :

Let’s configure now u-boot for the beaglebone black :

Build it using an arm cross-compiler for example yocto toolchains:

If everything went well, MLO and u-boot.img files should generated in the top directory.

Now we are ready to write them adding the Kernel and Device Tree to SD card using the address table above:

In case of using Yocto we can easily generate an image to flash on SD Card/eMMC using the following wic kickstart file:

Note that Falcon-Mode supports only uImage Kernel format !

Now let’s start our board using the previous image and configure it to use falcon-mode:

we set first the bootargs:

overwrite loadfdt and loadimage macros to use raw partitions:

then change the bootcmd to reflect our changes:

we run spl export command from u-Boot to prepare for the SPL everything that should be in place as if bootm to be executed:

The spl export command does not persist to media so we have to overwrite
the prepared FDT from RAM offsets 8ffd9000 to 8ffed310 into the FDT partition:

Finally we are ready to switch-on the falcon mode :

On the next boot we see that SPL jumped directly to Linux kernel :

In other articles we will cover further techniques used to achieve a Faster Linux Boot, stay tuned !


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